This paper considers how the data returned by radiocarbon analysis of wood-charcoal mortar-entrapped relict limekiln fuels MERLF relates to other evidence for the construction of medieval northern European masonry buildings. A review of previous studies highlights evidence for probable residuality in the data and reflects on how this has impacted on resultant interpretations. A critical survey of various wood-fired mortar materials and lime-burning techniques is then presented, to highlight evidence suggesting that a broad spectrum of different limekiln fuels has been exploited in different periods and that growth, seasoning, carriage and construction times are variable. It is argued that radiocarbon analysis of MERLF fragments does not date building construction directly and the heterogeneity of the evidence demands our interpretations are informed by sample taphonomy. A framework of Bayesian modelling approaches is then advanced and applied to three Scottish case studies with contrasting medieval MERLF assemblages. Ultimately, these studies demonstrate that radiocarbon analysis of MERLF materials can generate reasonably precise date range estimates for the construction of medieval masonry buildings which are consistent with other archaeological, historical and architectural interpretations. The paper will highlight that these different types of evidence are often complementary and establish that radiocarbon dated building materials can provide an important focus for more holistic multidisciplinary interpretations of the historic environment in various periods. A remarkably high number of medieval masonry buildings survive throughout northern and western Europe, and these structures present a valuable record of the interaction between different groups of medieval people and their surrounding environments.
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Goytepe archaeological complex
Metrics details. The freshwater reservoir effect can result in anomalously old radiocarbon ages of samples from lakes and rivers. This includes the bones of people whose subsistence was based on freshwater fish, and pottery in which fish was cooked. Water rich in dissolved ancient calcium carbonates, commonly known as hard water, is the most common reason for the freshwater reservoir effect. It is therefore also called hardwater effect.
Although it has been known for more than 60 years, it is still less well-recognized by archaeologists than the marine reservoir effect.
2B). Both objects have been radiocarbon dated in a previous campaign. The age range obtained from the bark and needle is so far considered.
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Most HIV-1 infected individuals do not know their infection dates. Precise infection timing is crucial information for studies that document transmission networks or drug levels at infection. To improve infection timing, we used the prospective RV cohort where the window when plasma viremia becomes detectable is narrow: the last negative visit occurred a median of four days before the first detectable HIV-1 viremia with an RNA test, referred below as diagnosis.
We sequenced 1, HIV-1 genomes from 39 participants at a median of 4, 32 and days post-diagnosis. HIV-1 infections were dated by using sequence-based methods and a viral load regression method. Bayesian coalescent and viral load regression estimated that infections occurred a median of 6 days prior to diagnosis IQR: 9—3 and 11—4 days prior, respectively. Poisson-Fitter, which analyzes the distribution of hamming distances among sequences, estimated a median of 7 days prior to diagnosis IQR: 15—4 days based on sequences sampled 4 days post-diagnosis, but it did not yield plausible results using sequences sampled at 32 days.
Fourteen participants reported a high-risk exposure event at a median of 8 days prior to diagnosis IQR: 12 to 6 days prior. These different methods concurred that HIV-1 infection occurred about a week before detectable viremia, corresponding to 20 days IQR: 34—15 days before peak viral load. Together, our methods comparison helps define a framework for future dating studies in early HIV-1 infection.
HIV-1 infected individuals rarely know when they became infected but knowing when an infection occurred provides critical information regarding HIV-1 pathogenesis and epidemiology. Using a unique cohort in which infection was known to have occurred in a narrow interval, we investigated methods to estimate the timing of infections. PLoS Pathog 16 2 : e This is an open access article, free of all copyright, and may be freely reproduced, distributed, transmitted, modified, built upon, or otherwise used by anyone for any lawful purpose.